Type of fallacies

Thursday, February 18, 2010 JS Hanniffy 1 Comments


Identifying fallacies is one of the important subjects in studying critical thinking.  To know what type of fallacies there are in a statement, you need to read deeply and carefully each word in the statement as every word may give a different meaning. To understand each word in a statement and link them to what type of fallacies they should be may not be easy; therefore learning the type of fallacies is to make you easier in identifying a statement; whether the statement is good or bad argument.
The type of fallacies can be divided into different type such as below:
1.       Lexical (Equivocation)
The fallacy of equivocation occurs when a word of a phrase is used in two different senses in the argument.
Here is an example of equivocation:
“Some triangles are obtuse. Whether is obtuse is ignorant. Therefore, some triangles are ignorant.
“Any law can be repealed by the legislative authority. But the law of gravity is a law. Therefore, the law of gravity is a law. Therefore, the law of gravity can be repealed by the legislative”
From the examples above the fallacy of equivocation the ambiguity can disappear in another language, which means the meaning of it can be different if it translates in different language.
2.       Referential (Equivocation)
This fallacy is also similar with lexical; no clear reference. It to responds to what we say.
3.       Syntactical (Amphiboly)
The fallacy of amphiboly occurs when the arguer misinterprets an ambiguous statement and then draws a conclusion based on this faulty interpretation. The grammatical rules play roles in the cause of fallacy of amphiboly; it’s correct but it’s ambiguous, which means the whole things have different meanings.
For example:
“John told Henry that had made a mistake. It follows that John at least the courage to admit his own mistakes”.
“I love candy more than you”.
According to the examples above the claims have shown two different of meanings.
DBLN, 23.07-170210

1 comment:

  1. Duh kalo yang ini tentang bahasa psikologi atau tentang sastra jeng... :-)

    ReplyDelete

Nice saying shows your character but that doesn't mean you can criticize. You can still do both in nice and polite way.

Blogger since 2008, writing with a fresh perspective.

Twitter Feeds