Inductive and Deductive Argument

Friday, April 09, 2010 JS Hanniffy 0 Comments

As it's already mentioned on the previous post that argument can be valid or invalid; however an argument is also can be strong or weak. The difference between the two of these arguments are described differently as an argument may difficult to solve if we don't understand to distinguish these type of arguments, and what fallacies have involved the argument. This is how we can clearly see the fallacy in argument. 

Argument can be devided in two types, Inductive and deductive. And they both have spesific characters in reasoning that can lead the argument either valid or invalid, strong or weak.

Inductive Argument

Inductive argument is charaterised by strong or weak argument. Basically, the inductive argument is based on probalistic reasoning.

A strong Inductive argument characterized by cogency in which it's based on true premises (cogent) or false premises (uncogent); and all weak Inductive arguments are uncogent. Typically Inductive argument comes from one particular subject to generalisation; hence although the premises are false the conclusion can be true as the conclusion might become real or true in the future. Therefore the inductive argument can never be valid or invalid as it gives too much probability reasonings in the conclusion. 

Here is example of strong and weak of  inductive argument.

Strong inductive argument:

People have been listening to rock and roll music for over a hundred years. Probably people will still be listening to it a year from now.

Note: the message has given its logic although the premises are false; remember, that anything can follow in the false premises.

Weak Inductive argument:

The African American athelete Ladainian Tomlinson is able to withstand tremendous impact on the football field. However, Serena Williams, like Ladainian Tomlinson, is a great African American athlete. Therefore, Serena Williams should be able to withstand tremendous impact on the football field.

Note: The premises are ture, but the conclusion is false.

Deductive Argument

Unlike Inductive argument that has character strong or weak in its conclusion; deductive argument is based on true premises and followed by true conclusion. Deductive argument is always about valid or invalid. The validity in deductive argument is when the premises is true then the conclusion must be true; you have to accept the conclusion if you accept the premises.

Invalid argument:

Since Agatha is th emother of Raquel and the sister of Tom, it follows that Tom is the uncle of Raquel.

Note: The premises are true, but the conlusion is false.

Valid argument:

Since the Christmas is always on Thursday, it follows that the day after Christmas is always on Friday.

Note: The premises and the conclusion are true.

DBLN, 15.16-090410

0 comments:

Nice saying shows your character but that doesn't mean you can criticize. You can still do both in nice and polite way.

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